They are planning for a massive geoengineering project to inject sulphur into the atmosphere to combat global warming.
I think they are insane.
A program to reduce Earth’s heat capture by injecting aerosols into the atmosphere from high-altitude aircraft is possible, inexpensive, and would be unlikely to remain secret.
“We developed the specifications for SAIL with direct input from several aerospace and engine companies. It’s equivalent in weight to a large narrow body passenger aircraft. But to sustain level flight at 20 kms, it needs roughly double the wing area of an equivalently sized airliner, and double the thrust, with four engines instead of two.
“At the same time, its fuselage would be stubby and narrow, sized to accommodate a heavy but dense mass of molten sulphur rather than the large volume of space and air required for passengers.”
NEW YORK — A fleet of 100 planes making 4,000 worldwide missions per year could help save the world from climate change. Also, it may be relatively cheap. That’s the conclusion of a new peer-reviewed study in Environmental Research Letters.
It’s the stuff of science fiction. Planes spraying tiny sulphate particulates into the lower stratosphere, around 60,000 feet up. The idea is to help shield the Earth from just enough sunlight to help keep temperatures low.
The researchers examined how practical and costly a hypothetical solar geoengineering project would be beginning 15 years from now. The aim would be to half the temperature increase caused by heat-trapping greenhouse gases.
In total, the eruption injected 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide aerosols into the stratosphere. USGS said the Earth’s lower atmosphere temperature dropped by approximately 1-degree Fahrenheit. The effect only lasted a couple of years because the sulfates eventually fell to Earth.
Although controversial, some think that trying to mimic the impacts of a volcano eruption is a viable way to control global warming. This proposed type of climate geoengineering is called stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI). Theoretically if done at scale — and sustained — the impact can be large. The 1-degree temperature drop which accompanied Mount Pinatubo’s eruption is equal to about half of the human-caused warming Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution began.
Dr. Gernot Wagner from Harvard University is an author of the paper. He said their study shows this type of geoengineering “… would be technically possible strictly from an engineering perspective. It would also be remarkably inexpensive, at an average of around $2 to 2.5 billion per year over the first 15 years.”
But to reach that point, the study said an entirely new aircraft needs to be developed. Partly because missions would need to be conducted at nearly double the cruising altitude of commercial airplanes. The study’s co-author, Wake Smithexplained, “No existing aircraft has the combination of altitude and payload capabilities required.”
So, the team investigated what it would cost to develop an aircraft they dub the SAI Lofter (SAIL). They say its fuselage would have a stubby design and the wing area — as well as the thrust — would need to be twice as large. In total, the team estimates the development cost for the airframe to be $2 billion and $350 million to modify existing engines.
In their hypothetical plan, the fleet would start with eight planes in the first year and rise to just under 100 within 15 years. In year one, there would be 4,000 missions, increasing to just over 60,000 per year by year 15. As you can see, this would need to be a sustained and escalating effort.
As one may imagine, a concept like this comes with a lot of controversy. Like treating a fever with aspirin, this type of engineering only treats the symptoms, it does not fix the root cause of the warming: Escalating levels of heat trapping greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels.
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) expressed concerns that the possibility of seemingly quick and inexpensive fixes will distract the public and policymakers from addressing the underlying problems and developing adaptation strategies. And if for whatever reason the aerosol missions stopped, within a few years the temperatures would shoot up at breakneck pace. A pace that would likely be too fast for humanity to adjust.
The AMS official policy statement regarding this type of geoengineering begins with a warning, “Reflecting sunlight would likely reduce Earth’s average temperature but could also change global circulation patterns with potentially serious consequences such as changing storm tracks and precipitation patterns.”
In other words, the atmosphere is complex. Any band-aid fix is bound to have unintended consequences and possibly cause a new set of problems. The AMS goes on to say results of reflecting sunlight “would almost certainly not be the same for all nations and peoples, thus raising legal, ethical, diplomatic and national security concerns.” One region may become a desert, while others become flooded out.
And if we learn to control SAI to tailor a favorable result, there’s the concern it may be used for the disproportionate benefit of one nation over another. In a 2017 study in the publication Nature Communications, the authors warn their work “… reemphasizes the perils of unilateral geoengineering, which might prove attractive to individual actors due to a greater controllability of local climate responses, but with inherent additional risk elsewhere.”
But perhaps the greatest reason to be skeptical of aerosol solar sunlight management is that it’s not a silver bullet. As carbon dioxide continues to increase, the oceans are becoming increasingly acidic. According to NOAA, ocean acidification can cascade through the ocean food chain, reducing the ability of shell fish and reef-building corals to produce their skeletons. Injecting aerosols into the stratosphere simply limits sunshine, it does not tackle the underlying carbon dioxide build up. The ocean would continue to acidify.
Despite the potential drawbacks, the AMS does recognize — even with aggressive mitigation — we can’t avoid some dangerous consequences of climate changealready baked into the system. Plus, the scale of human adaptation is limited. Therefore, they urge caution and continued research.
The AMS policy statement closes with: “Geoengineering will not substitute for either aggressive mitigation or proactive adaptation, but it could contribute to a comprehensive risk management strategy to slow climate change and alleviate some of its negative impacts. The potential to help society cope with climate change and the risks of adverse consequences imply a need for adequate research, appropriate regulation and transparent deliberation.”
Many countries are not fooling for that United Nation Migration Pact. Because millions of people in Europe are Waking Up are no longer fooling that United Nation because they know its invasion. Countries like Poland, Hungary, Austria and any more are saying “No” to the United Nations Migration Pact because they know what it is and they’re not fooling for it.
The Migrant Caravan have arrived at the USA and Mexico border and are already trying to get through.
They’re not migrants, they’re invaders and Trump know that; that’s why there are troops at the border to protect it
Another video taking about the China Social Credit System. This one is from ABC Australia.
I thank the brave Chinese People who speak out against the Social Credit System that going create a nightmare society because the world need to know. I hope one day the many Chinese people will wake up and revolt against the tyrannical system and bring freedom to their nation.
Since Donald Trump was elected back in 2016; he exit out the Paris Climate agreement. 2 Year later the kids want to Sue the Trump Administration for not Taking on Climate Change and not going long with the scam. For my point of view: For those kid; you been brainwashed to believe that Global warming is an issue and as human being we are blamed for it. And all the Climate Change alarmism is being taught in school indoctrinating children to believe that human are blame for climate change like:
Carbon Dioxide is a pollination
Ice is melting
Polar bear population is declining
Cow farts causing an increase of greenhouse gases
Wind turbines and solar are good sources of energy
Carbon Tax will save the planet
The real facts are
Carbon Dioxide is plant food (Between 1,000 to 1,500 ppm is an optimal CO2 level for plants growth. The raising CO2 level is greening the planet. But not enough CO2 (200 ppm or less) plants will not grow but too much CO2 (above 2,000 ppm) is toxic
Ice melts in the summer and grow in the winter. Back in 2014 Antarctica have the record high level of ice with surface area of 20.11 million square kilometers (7.76 million square miles). Back in 2009 in the Copenhagen Climate Al Gore claims Arctic will be ice free by 2014 or 2016 according to this video
But Al Gore you’re way off because it’s now 2018 and the polar ice in arctic is there.The Arctic Ice is getting thick this image prove that is the case from Polar Portal
Arctic Ice volume 25 August 2008
Arctic Ice volume 25 August 2018
Those two image prove that arctic is getting thicker. Arctic will still have ice in the next decade with the up coming solar minimum which will be call the Eddy Minimum
Polar bear population is booming and thriving. Population is estimated to around 22,000 to 30,000 which will around 4 to 6 fold since the 1950s despite fears about global warming’s impact on polar bears even spurred the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) to say that the bear was “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act in 2008. If polar bear is thriving why is still declared “threatened”?
Methane is excuse that Climate alarmist like to use push their agenda to deindustrialize the agriculture industry and to tax meat and then bring forth meat prohibition as well other animal products in the name of sustainability and saving the planet. Without the Greenhouse effect on earth will be much colder
Wind and solar are not reliable source of energy on a large sale because you need wind for wind turbines to work; you need sun for solar panels to work; Wind don’t always blow and sun don’t always shine. They’re also expensive as well. Wind turbine is harming the bird population that why Wind Turbine is call “bird killers”. Humans and animals living near the Wind Turbine could having some negative health effect on them.
Carbon Tax will bring forth deindustrialization, create jobs losses, undermine the economy, make Electricity and Gasoline more expensive, make everyday life a living hell.
All I can say that: I been there; I used to believe that global warming was issue in my late teens and my early 20s and I end have a Malthusianist mindset by thinking that depopulation was necessary to combat Climate Change. Believing in Climate alarmism may you into a anti-human mindset. Oh boy that the road I never want go back on because that a mindset a psychopath would have. The climate alarmist also they want climate skeptics arrested and throw in prison and those who even disagree with them; this is dangerous; the elite know that climate alarmism ideology is felling apart and they want to being as much people with them.
To the Climate Alarmist you can raise up above the fear you taught to believe. I don’t have all the answers; I know that many Climate Alarmist will continue in their falsehood what Elites have indoctrinated them with. I try do make it easier as I can your to understand the information. Even that don’t believe every word I post in the article I best to do your own research. That why I got several link that you chick and decide for yourself.
This is a long, but very readable piece from the New York Times Magazine:
I have only included the opening section, plus a few relevant paragraphs, but I would recommend reading it in full:
The fields outside Kotawaringin village in Central Kalimantan, on the island of Borneo, looked as if they had just been cleared by armies. None of the old growth remained — only charred stumps poking up from murky, dark pools of water. In places, smoke still curled from land that days ago had been covered with lush jungle. Villagers had burned it all down, clearing the way for a lucrative crop whose cultivation now dominates the entire island: the oil-palm tree.
The dirt road was ruler straight, but deep holes and errant boulders tossed our tiny Toyota back and forth. Trucks coughed out black smoke, their beds brimming over with seven-ton loads of palm…
Thousands of central American migrants have arrived in Tijuana and many more are said to be headed to the Mexican border city. With the US busy fortifying the crossing, it’s not clear if and when the migrants will be able to proceed. The tension and uncertainty are too much for some of Tijuana’s residents.
Hundreds of residents of the Mexican border city of Tijuana protest the thousands of Central American migrants who have arrived in the hope of starting a new life in the US. On Sunday, local residents waved Mexican flags, sang the national anthem and chanted ‘Out! Out!’ At one point, police formed a barrier between the Central American migrants and protesting locals. Protesters have called the migrant caravan an ‘invasion’ and are accusing the migrants of being messy, ungrateful and a danger to Tijuana. They are concerned Mexican taxes might be spent to care for the group as they wait, possibly months, to apply for asylum in the US
My Conclusion: As a New Zealander I Don’t mine people who want to migrate to New Zealand but they must obey our laws in this country and respect the culture and values of the country. This apply to any other country for those who choose migrate there. If they break the law and don’t respect the culture and values of the country they should be deport back where they came from.
That the one reason why many Tijuana Residents are protecting because they do not want them here.
USA do not want them; Mexico do not want them. One thing for the migrant caravan to do; is go back to the country where they came from
(Natural News) A study published in the journal Biological Agriculture & Horticulture assessed soil nitrogen oxidation through field incubation, and analyzed the rate of nitrogen release by commercial fertilizers compared with farmyard manure compost.
For the study, a three-year organic crop rotation was set up in a field with sandy loam, with a cover crop of rye and vetch for green manure. In the first year, the researchers planted potato and lettuce, followed by Swiss chard and turnips in the second year, and Portuguese cabbage and carrots in the third year.
Nitrogen (N) mineralization was assessed by field incubation in response to green manure (GM); GM with 20 and 40 t/ha (tonne per hectare) farmyard manure (FYM) compost (C20 and C40); and GM with 1 and 2 t/ha of commercial organic fertilizer (CF1 and CF2).
The second season crops lettuce, turnip, and carrot treated with C40 produced higher yields compared with all other treatments. Most of the commercial fertilizer was mineralized or oxidized during the previous crop.
Swiss chard, grown in 54 days, produced higher yield with CF2 treatment compared with C40. Continuous compost and GM application increased N availability and compost mineralized N recovery during longer growing season for potatoes (124 days), and short growing season for cabbage (56 days).
These findings indicate that the fast nitrogen release of commercial fertilizers increased the yield of the first crop of the year, but the slowly released nitrogen of farmyard manure compost increased the yield of both crops of the year, plus a lower risk of soil nitrogen loss.
Alfalfa pellets — Alfalfa is chopped and pressed into small pellets, with each little pellet releasing the nutrients slowly over a few weeks to months. They act as a natural slow release fertilization program for plants that need an extra boost.
Bat guano — Bat excrement is a nitrogen-rich fertilizer that works well when mixed with sawdust or other wood product. Bat guano is highly concentrated, so a little bit goes a long way.
Blood meal — This is another high-nitrogen fertilizer that you can get from your local abattoir. It is usually dried and purchased as a dark red powder. This is usually used for crops that require a rich soil or added to slow compost as an activator. Note that the smell of blood meal can attract wildlife or your neighbors’ pets.
Chicken manure — This fertilizer is readily obtainable, especially if you have backyard chickens. Used judiciously, composted well with the deep litter of the chicken house, this is one of the absolute best of all high nitrogen fertilizers. Note that chicken manure can be extremely hot in the first stages of decomposition, and can burn tender seedlings with both the heat of decomposition and the salts that it contains.
Compost tea — Add a couple of shovels full of compost to a nylon stocking, and steep it in a large water-filled bin. Stir it daily for a week or two and dilute before using. Avoid using compost tea on leafy green crops that you will eat raw, as it can be a source of E. coli or other bacteria that can cause digestive problems. (Related: 8 ways to make healthy organic soil for your garden.)
Horse manure — One of the best natural fertilizers, horse manure contains a good percentage of smaller particles that can add valuable organic matter to the soil.
Did you know that fish emulsion is another nitrogen-rich organic fertilizer? Learn more about different kinds of organic fertilizers and their effects on crop yields at GreenLivingNews.com.
(Natural News) Come to any local gardening center and you may see rows and rows of plant- and animal-based fertilizers that boast of faster growth, beautiful blooms, or abundant produce from your plants. But which type of fertilizer can actually deliver these promises?
The researchers investigated the influence of plant- and animal-based fertilizers on organic matter content, soil respiration, crop yield, and phytochemical content of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) heads. The researchers used one plant-based and three animal-based certified organic fertilizers as experimental treatments:
The research team assessed and compared the soil respiration and organic matter content of soil with plant-based amendments (alfalfa meal) and soil treated with animal-based fertilizers (blood meal, chicken manure, and fish meal).
After two years, researchers found soil respiration and organic matter content to be higher in soil with plant-based treatments than soil with animal-based amendments. In addition, artichoke heads grown in alfalfa-treated soil were also found to have higher concentrations of phytochemicals than those grown in soil with animal-based fertilizers. The downside is that the cost of the alfalfa meal was higher than that of the animal-based treatments. (Related: Organic fertilizers made with moringa promote the healthier growth of wheat.)
In terms of crop yield, those from soil treated with chicken manure was higher compared with alfalfa-treated soil. In the first year of the study, yields from both chicken manure and fish meal treatments were higher than the alfalfa treatment.
These findings suggest that plant-based soil amendments can be an ideal choice for improving soil quality and phytochemical content of crops, but for organic farmers whose main concerns are crop yield and overall cost, animal-based fertilizers may be the ideal option.
Vegan organic fertilizers
The best way to ensure that you have the best fertilizers for your plants is to make them yourself. The following list features some vegan organic fertilizers that you can easily make in your own backyard:
Compost — A compost pile is a staple in any good garden, if you have the space. A good compost pile is full of nutrients, nitrogen and beneficial microorganisms that keep your garden healthy. Making your own compost pile also encourages a healthy population of worms which is another benefit for your plants.
Hay mulches — Mulching is simply covering the ground with layers of organic material. Mulching will add nutrients to the soil as it decomposes, and will also suppress weeds and encourage worms in your garden. You can apply mulch while your garden is on a break for the winter, or you can do it while your plants are growing, as long as you don’t overwhelm your plants.
Liquid fertilizers — You can make liquid fertilizers with comfrey or nettles and other composting plants. These fertilizers are an excellent source of nitrogen. Treat your garden with some wonderful liquid fertilizer with this quick guide and an advanced method of making your own compost tea out of nettle.
Worm castings — Worm castings improve the soil and increase your garden’s fertility. Purchasing them from a store sure is the easier option, but it can be harmful to the worms being cultivated for the product. You can encourage a natural worm population by simply providing the right environment for them to thrive in. You can do this by providing a cool, damp and dark environment with plenty of nutrients for them to enjoy, such as a compost pile or hay mulch.
Learn more about the various factors that affect crop yields at Harvest.news.